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Sound Signals

Lights & Shapes

Vessels engaged in "Fishing"

Engaged in trolling without underway
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View from BOW at Night                    View from STERN Night
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            View from Starboard Night
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Vessels engaged in "Fishing"

         Engaged in Trolling with underway less than 50 metres
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Vessels engaged in "Fishing"

Engaged in Trolling with underway more than 50 metres
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Vessels engaged in "Fishing"

Engaged with Nets without underway
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Vessels engaged in "Fishing"

Engaged with Nets underway


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Vessels engaged in "Fishing"


Engaged with Nets distance from vessel more than 150 metres without underway
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Vessels engaged in "Fishing"


Engaged with and Nets and distance from vessel more than 150 metres with underway
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Vessels engaged in "Fishing"


Engaged in Trolling (under operation) with underway
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Vessels engaged in "Fishing"


Engaged in Trolling (Collective Nets) with underway
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Vessels engaged in "Fishing"


Trol Nets are obstacled
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Vessels engaged in "Fishing"


Cargo Vessels at Sea - Navigation

If over 50 metres (164ft) length, then also a second masthead light aft and
higher than the forward one, except that a vessel of less than 59 metres in
length shall not be onliged to exhibit such light
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Restricted in ability to Manoeume


Not Under Command and Not Underway

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Restricted on ability to Manoeume


Not Under Command and Underway
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Restricted in ability to Manoeume


Restricted to Manoevre and not making way
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Restricted on ability to Manoeume


Restricted to Manoevre and not making way
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Pilot Boats


Pilot boat with less than 50 metres length
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Anchored vessel


Anchored vessel with 50 metres and more
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Restricted Vessels


Constrained by Draught
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Dredging or Underwater Operations

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Engaged in Mine

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Aircraft vessels


Less than 50 metres with making way
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Aircraft vessels


Underway with 50 metres length and more
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Towing and Pushing


Power driven vessel with less than 50 length & 200 m. and over towing length.
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Towing and Pushing


Power driven vessel with 50 m and more length & 200 m. and more towing length.
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Towing and Pushing


Power driven vessel with less 50 m. length pushing another vessel
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Towing and Pushing


Power drovem vessel with 50 m. and more length pushing another vessel
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Towing and Pushing


Power driven vessel with less than 50 m. length engaged in towing her alongside
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Towing and Pushing


Power driven vessel with 50 m. and more length engaged in towing her alongside
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Towing and Pushing


Power driven vessel with less than 50 m. length unable to alter course & 200m. and over towing length.
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Towing and Pushing


Power-driven vessel with 50 metres length and more, engaged in towing operation and restricted to alter course
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Sea Planes


Shall exhibit lights and shapes as closely similar in characteristics
and position as is possible
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Rules for Priority


1 is the highest with Exceptions: 1. Narrow
channels, Traffic Separation Schemes, 2. overtaking
1. N.U.C - Not Under Command
2. Restricted in ability to manoeuvre
3.Constrained by draught
4. Fishing
5.Sail
6.Motor (including motor sailing)
Overtaking - Sail and Power
1.Boat ahead
2. Boat overtaking
Coverging Power
1.Boat on right
2. Boat on left


Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972)

Rule 04 : Application


The rules apply in any condition of visibility (e.g. in sight or in restricted visibility).

Rule 5 : Look-out


Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the sistuation and of the risk of collision.

Rule 6: Safe speed


Every vessel shall at al times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions.

Rule 7: Risk of Collision


Vessels must use all available means to determine the risk of a collision including the use of radar (if available) to get early warning of the risk of collision by dadar plotting or equivalent systematic observation of detected object. (e.g. ARPA, AIS).

If the distance of any vessel is reducing and her compass bearing is not changing much or italicis a large vessel or towing vessel at close distance, or if there is any doubt, then a risk of collision shall be deemed it exit.

Rule 08: Action to avoid collision


Actions taken to avoid collision should be:
  • safe (positive)
  • Obvious (substantial)
  • Made in good time (early)
  • Rule 09:Narrow channels


  • A vessel proceeding along a narrow channel must keep to starboard.
  • Small vessel or sailing vessels must not impede (larger) vessels which can navigate only with in that channel.
  • Ships must not cross a channel if to do so would impede another vessel which can nagigate only within that channel.
  • Rule 10:Traffic Separation


    Schemes ships must cross traffic lanes steering a course "as nearly as practicable" at right angles to the diretion of traffic. This reduces confussion and enables that vessel to cross the lane as quickly as possible. Vessek entering a traffic separation scheme should do it at an angle as small as practicable. A traffic separation scheme does not relieve any vessel from complying with other rules.

    Rule 12:Sailing vessels


    Two sailing vessels approaching one another must give-way as follows:
  • Port gives way to Starboard. When each has the wind on a different side, the vessel which has the wind to port must give way;

  • windward gives way to leeward. When both have the wind on the same side, the vessel which is leeward;
  • Unsure port gives way. If a vessel, with the wind on the port side, sees a vessel to windward and cannot determine whether the other vessel has the wind on the port or the starboard side, they must give way.

  • Rule 13:Overtaking


    An overtaking vessel must keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken." Overtaking" means approaching another vessel at more than 22.5 degrees abaft her beam, i.e. so that at night, the overtaking vessel would see only the stern light and neither of the sidelights of the vessel being overtakine.

    Rule 14:Head-on situations


    When two power-driven vessels are meeting head-on both must alter course to starboard so that they pass on the port side of the other."Head -on "means seeing the other vessel ahead or nearly ahead so that by night her masthead lights, are actually or nearly lined up and /or seeing both her sidelights, or by day seeing a similar aspect of her.

    Rule 15:Crossing situations


    When two power - driven vessels are crossing, the vessel which has the other on hte starboard side must give way and avoid crossing ahead of her. The saying is "If ti starboard red appear."it is your duty to keep clear".

    Rule 16: The give-way vessel


    The give-way vessel must take early and substantial action to keep well clear.

    Rule 17:The stand-on vessel


    The stand-on vessel shall maintain her course and speed, but she may take action to avid collision if it becomes clear that the give-way vessel is not taking appropriate action, or when so close that collision can no longer be avoided by the actions of the give-way vessel alone. In a crossing situation, hte stand-on vesselshould avoid turning to port even if the give-way vessel is not taking appropriate action. These options for the stand-on vessel do not relieve the give-way vessel of her obligations uder the rules

    Rule 18:Responsibilities between vessels


    Except in narrow channels, traffic separation schemes, and when overtaking (i.e.rules 9, 9,and 13)
  • A power-driven vessel must give to:
  • a vessel not under command ;
    a vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver (this may include vessels towing one another).
    a vessel engaged in fishing;
    a sailing vessel.
  • A sailing vessel must give way to:

  • a vessel not under command:
    a vessel restricted in her ability to manever;
    a vessel engaged in fishing.
  • A vessel engaged in fishing when underway shall so far as possilbe, keep out of the way of:

  • a vessel not under command:
    a vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver.
  • Any vessel other than a vessel not under command or a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre shall if possible , not impede the safe passage of a vessel constrained by her draft. exhibiting the signals in Rule 28.
  • Rule 28 says: to the lights described in here for power-driven vessels and exhibit where they can best be seen three all-round red lights in a vertical line, or a cylinder.
    A vessel constrained by her draft shall navigate with particular caution having full regard to her special condition.